Vegetables, fruits, greenery. Preparation for shipment in refrigerated.

Standards transportation and storage of fruits and vegetables.

To regulate international trade in fruit and vegetables states adopted a number of standards and regulations. Their task – prevent the spread of disease, adjust the amount of pesticides and heavy metals in fruit, fruit processing before transport, etc..

Basically standards are advisory in nature and are valid only in the country, which they took. Internationally any required standards and no rules.

  • In the European Union adopted 28 mandatory standards, operating exclusively within the EU.
  • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OESR, 1988 g.) – 53 recommended standard.
  • ESE (Onn Economic Commission for Europe – ЄEK) – 38 recommended standard.
  • Central standard (Central America) and ZCAITY (Guatemala) – recommended standards mainly for fruit.
  • US Grade Standards (America) – 87 recommended standards.

So, importers carry out import only those products, that meet the quality standards in their country.

Processing of fruit

Today, grown and transportation of fruits and vegetables without any processing virtually impossible. Production goes a long way, maintain product quality – The main task provider. Fruits, vegetables, greenery – fresh products, After harvesting they are continuing biological processes and bacteria. If they do not stop – the goods will arrive on store shelves at best overripe, at worst – forbidden to eat. To prevent this, use different types of treatment:

  • cold treatment.

Such processing are some citrus and grapes, to get rid of insects. Example, Caribbean insects die at temperatures below 2,2 ° C. 10-17 days.

  • Handling pesticides.

It is used to protect fruits and vegetables from parasites, diseases, pests. There is no generally accepted norms, Many countries have their own rules, very strict.

  • surface Finish

Any no international standards. Each country sets its own. Some countries allow the processing of fruit only natural ingredients, others can use supplements. Japan, example, in the processing of fruit using polyvinyl.

  • ionizing radiation

Used to extend the life of fruit and vegetables. Despite, that international restrictions on its use not, ionizing radiation is the subject of controversy around the world.

  • Other methods of treatment

chlorine – used for washing fruits and vegetables. It is forbidden in some countries.

Gazi (carbon monoxide) – used to extend shelf life of fruits.

sorbic acid, definol, sulphates – to extend the shelf life.

Preparations for the saturation of the color of fruits and vegetables, used in Japan.

Packaging

Apply two types of packaging - external and internal.

The outer packaging

It protects the fruit from mechanical damage and is the container for transport. Most often a wooden or plastic boxes, Boxes fibreboard. The outer packaging must be strong, moisture resistant and allow the necessary air flow to circulate between fruit to maintain the desired temperature.

The inner packaging

It protects the fruit from contamination, dehydration, simplifies sales. One of the common types of inner packaging – plastic film, packages; less – mesh and paper bags. On the inner packaging is applied logo, recommendations for product usage and other information for consumers. The internal packaging in each country their demands, example – compliance with hygiene, netoksichnіsty.

Compatible products

The need to carry a small party of incompatible products in a refrigerator periodically occurs in each sender. At short distances this mistake will not play a significant role, but long – will not have problems.

What happens compatibility:

  • Etylenovaya compatibility

ethylene – colorless gas with a faint odor, released in varying amounts of fruits and vegetables and accelerates their maturation. Some crops susceptible to its influence over, other – Less. Partly ethylene-sensitive products should not be transported together with food, which produce large amounts of ethylene. Because of the large amount of hormones during ripening ethylene, Products sensitive to it, will objectionable tastes and odors.

Quite sensitive to ethylene – bananas, eggplant, Brussels sprouts, celery, cucumbers, peaches and pears. With, bananas, peaches and peas themselves produce large amounts of the hormone. For example, Bananas do not stand rooming with other products even for 2 days.

  • Compatibility means the processing of fruits.

Without exception, all fruits and vegetables are processed by different means to transportation. When downloading is necessary to consider the compatibility of these drugs and prevent their mixing.

  • Requirements for relative humidity and temperature

Not recommended for transportation of products with different requirements for temperature and humidity levels. Such actions harm product quality and unfit to lead his state.

Temperature transportation modes

To preserve the beneficial vitamins, integrity fruits, they are transported by special microclimate conditions. Before loading the vegetables and fruit is cooled to the desired temperature, then warehoused in refrigerated pre-prepared. Properly configured microclimate inside the refrigerator slows the aging of fruits, unwanted growth, the emergence of shoots, maintains utility output. The ventilation system controls and prevents moisture loss and spoilage lethargy. Also required air, to displace carbon dioxide and ethylene, produktami produced during respiratsiyi.

Recommended temperature transport and storage:

Product

Temperature
storage,
° C

Humidity

Eggplant

+7 to +1290-95%

broccoli, pekinska

090-95%
Greenery (parsley, dill, celery)+0,5 to +195-100%
Cabbage white- of red and 0 to +190-95%

Potato

+4 to +685-95%
courgettes+5 to +1050-70%
Onions -2 to +265-75%

Carrot, maize, beet

090-95%
Sparzha0 to +295-100%
apples-1 to +495%
peaches-1 to 090-95%

pears

-1,5 to -0,595-95%

apricots

-1 to 095-95%
apple quince095%

Kabak

+10 to +1350-75%

Garlic

065-75%

Tomatoes mature

+8 to +1195-95%

green Tomatoes

+13 to +1685-95%

sweet Pepper

+8 to +995-100%

It is not advisable to go beyond the allowed temperature. Increasing the allowable temperature leads to excessive evaporation, dehydration, bacteria. Decrease – to hypothermia, freezing fruit and vegetables.

Signs of hypothermia:

  1. darkening core.
  2. Damage to the surface - peeling skin, fovea, softening, decay.
  3. The increased rate of aging fruit.
  4. Odor and taste.

Susceptibility to temperature changes in different fruits. The structure of the skin – basic protection factor. Sensitive to temperature changes – parsley, mushrooms, raspberry, bananas, tomatoes, etc.. Less sensitive – carrot, radish, cabbage, dates, beets, etc..

Requirements for refrigerated containers:

  1. Serviceability refrigeration.
  2. Sealed container.
  3. Clean and lack of foreign smell inside the container.
  4. Compliance with international standards ISO.

Preparing food in refrigerated downloaded.

important to know, that feature refrigerator – maintaining the required temperature load, not freezing road. So, container products and pre-cooled. products – to a temperature transportation, refkonteyner – on 2-3 ° C lower. This is done so, during load refrigerated want to disable, and during this time he will lose 2-3 gradusi. Stacking of products 20 and 40 Containers may be without pallets. For 45 foot – strictly on pallets due to differences in floor construction. Boxes of fruit and vegetables are stored no higher marks on the walls of the container height, not close to each other. It is necessary for sufficient ventilation inside the refrigerator and support microclimate. After loading refrigerated starts working again, adjusts the temperature and products ready for shipment.